The Apache Tomcat Servlet/JSP Container

Apache Tomcat 7

Version 7.0.62, Jun 16 2015
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JNDI Resources HOW-TO

Table of Contents
Introduction

Tomcat provides a JNDI InitialContext implementation instance for each web application running under it, in a manner that is compatible with those provided by a Java Enterprise Edition application server. The Java EE standard provides a standard set of elements in the /WEB-INF/web.xml file to reference/define resources.

See the following Specifications for more information about programming APIs for JNDI, and for the features supported by Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) servers, which Tomcat emulates for the services that it provides:

web.xml configuration

The following elements may be used in the web application deployment descriptor (/WEB-INF/web.xml) of your web application to define resources:

  • <env-entry> - Environment entry, a single-value parameter that can be used to configure how the application will operate.
  • <resource-ref> - Resource reference, which is typically to an object factory for resources such as a JDBC DataSource, a JavaMail Session, or custom object factories configured into Tomcat.
  • <resource-env-ref> - Resource environment reference, a new variation of resource-ref added in Servlet 2.4 that is simpler to configure for resources that do not require authentication information.

Providing that Tomcat is able to identify an appropriate resource factory to use to create the resource and that no further configuration information is required, Tomcat will use the information in /WEB-INF/web.xml to create the resource.

Tomcat provides a number of Tomcat specific options for JNDI resources that cannot be specified in web.xml. These include closeMethod that enables faster cleaning-up of JNDI resources when a web application stops and singleton that controls whether or not a new instance of the resource is created for every JNDI lookup. To use these configuration options the resource must be specified in a web application's <Context> element or in the <GlobalNamingResources> element of $CATALINA_BASE/conf/server.xml.

context.xml configuration

If Tomcat is unable to identify the appropriate resource factory and/or additional configuration information is required, additional Tomcat specific configuration must be specified before Tomcat can create the resource. Tomcat specific resource configuration is entered in the <Context> elements that can be specified in either $CATALINA_BASE/conf/server.xml or, preferably, the per-web-application context XML file (META-INF/context.xml).

Tomcat specific resource configuration is performed using the following elements in the <Context> element:

  • <Environment> - Configure names and values for scalar environment entries that will be exposed to the web application through the JNDI InitialContext (equivalent to the inclusion of an <env-entry> element in the web application deployment descriptor).
  • <Resource> - Configure the name and data type of a resource made available to the application (equivalent to the inclusion of a <resource-ref> element in the web application deployment descriptor).
  • <ResourceLink> - Add a link to a resource defined in the global JNDI context. Use resource links to give a web application access to a resource defined in the <GlobalNamingResources> child element of the <Server> element.
  • <Transaction> - Add a resource factory for instantiating the UserTransaction object instance that is available at java:comp/UserTransaction.

Any number of these elements may be nested inside a <Context> element and will be associated only with that particular web application.

If a resource has been defined in a <Context> element it is not necessary for that resource to be defined in /WEB-INF/web.xml. However, it is recommended to keep the entry in /WEB-INF/web.xml to document the resource requirements for the web application.

Where the same resource name has been defined for a <env-entry> element included in the web application deployment descriptor (/WEB-INF/web.xml) and in an <Environment> element as part of the <Context> element for the web application, the values in the deployment descriptor will take precedence only if allowed by the corresponding <Environment> element (by setting the override attribute to "true").

Global configuration

Tomcat maintains a separate namespace of global resources for the entire server. These are configured in the <GlobalNamingResources> element of $CATALINA_BASE/conf/server.xml. You may expose these resources to web applications by using a <ResourceLink> to include it in the per-web-application context.

If a resource has been defined using a <ResourceLink>, it is not necessary for that resource to be defined in /WEB-INF/web.xml. However, it is recommended to keep the entry in /WEB-INF/web.xml to document the resource requirements for the web application.

Using resources

The InitialContext is configured as a web application is initially deployed, and is made available to web application components (for read-only access). All configured entries and resources are placed in the java:comp/env portion of the JNDI namespace, so a typical access to a resource - in this case, to a JDBC DataSource - would look something like this:

// Obtain our environment naming context
Context initCtx = new InitialContext();
Context envCtx = (Context) initCtx.lookup("java:comp/env");

// Look up our data source
DataSource ds = (DataSource)
  envCtx.lookup("jdbc/EmployeeDB");

// Allocate and use a connection from the pool
Connection conn = ds.getConnection();
... use this connection to access the database ...
conn.close();
Tomcat Standard Resource Factories

Tomcat includes a series of standard resource factories that can provide services to your web applications, but give you configuration flexibility (via the <Context> element) without modifying the web application or the deployment descriptor. Each subsection below details the configuration and usage of the standard resource factories.

See Adding Custom Resource Factories for information about how to create, install, configure, and use your own custom resource factory classes with Tomcat.

NOTE - Of the standard resource factories, only the "JDBC Data Source" and "User Transaction" factories are mandated to be available on other platforms, and then they are required only if the platform implements the Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) specs. All other standard resource factories, plus custom resource factories that you write yourself, are specific to Tomcat and cannot be assumed to be available on other containers.

Generic JavaBean Resources
0. Introduction

This resource factory can be used to create objects of any Java class that conforms to standard JavaBeans naming conventions (i.e. it has a zero-arguments constructor, and has property setters that conform to the setFoo() naming pattern. The resource factory will only create a new instance of the appropriate bean class every time a lookup() for this entry is made if the singleton attribute of the factory is set to false.

The steps required to use this facility are described below.

1. Create Your JavaBean Class

Create the JavaBean class which will be instantiated each time that the resource factory is looked up. For this example, assume you create a class com.mycompany.MyBean, which looks like this:

package com.mycompany;

public class MyBean {

  private String foo = "Default Foo";

  public String getFoo() {
    return (this.foo);
  }

  public void setFoo(String foo) {
    this.foo = foo;
  }

  private int bar = 0;

  public int getBar() {
    return (this.bar);
  }

  public void setBar(int bar) {
    this.bar = bar;
  }


}
2. Declare Your Resource Requirements

Next, modify your web application deployment descriptor (/WEB-INF/web.xml) to declare the JNDI name under which you will request new instances of this bean. The simplest approach is to use a <resource-env-ref> element, like this:

<resource-env-ref>
  <description>
    Object factory for MyBean instances.
  </description>
  <resource-env-ref-name>
    bean/MyBeanFactory
  </resource-env-ref-name>
  <resource-env-ref-type>
    com.mycompany.MyBean
  </resource-env-ref-type>
</resource-env-ref>

WARNING - Be sure you respect the element ordering that is required by the DTD for web application deployment descriptors! See the Servlet Specification for details.

3. Code Your Application's Use Of This Resource

A typical use of this resource environment reference might look like this:

Context initCtx = new InitialContext();
Context envCtx = (Context) initCtx.lookup("java:comp/env");
MyBean bean = (MyBean) envCtx.lookup("bean/MyBeanFactory");

writer.println("foo = " + bean.getFoo() + ", bar = " +
               bean.getBar());
4. Configure Tomcat's Resource Factory

To configure Tomcat's resource factory, add an element like this to the <Context> element for this web application.

<Context ...>
  ...
  <Resource name="bean/MyBeanFactory" auth="Container"
            type="com.mycompany.MyBean"
            factory="org.apache.naming.factory.BeanFactory"
            bar="23"/>
  ...
</Context>

Note that the resource name (here, bean/MyBeanFactory must match the value specified in the web application deployment descriptor. We are also initializing the value of the bar property, which will cause setBar(23) to be called before the new bean is returned. Because we are not initializing the foo property (although we could have), the bean will contain whatever default value is set up by its constructor.

Some beans have properties with types that can not automatically be converted from a string value. Setting such properties using the Tomcat BeanFactory will fail with a NamingException. In cases were those beans provide methods to set the properties from a string value, the Tomcat BeanFactory can be configured to use these methods. The configuration is done with the forceString attribute.

Assume our bean looks like this:

package com.mycompany;

import java.net.InetAddress;
import java.net.UnknownHostException;

public class MyBean2 {

  private InetAddress local = null;

  public InetAddress getLocal() {
    return local;
  }

  public void setLocal(InetAddress ip) {
    local = ip;
  }

  public void setLocal(String localHost) {
    try {
      local = InetAddress.getByName(localHost);
    } catch (UnknownHostException ex) {
    }
  }

  private InetAddress remote = null;

  public InetAddress getRemote() {
    return remote;
  }

  public void setRemote(InetAddress ip) {
    remote = ip;
  }

  public void host(String remoteHost) {
    try {
      remote = InetAddress.getByName(remoteHost);
    } catch (UnknownHostException ex) {
    }
  }

}

The bean has two properties, both are of type InetAddress. The first property local has an additional setter taking a string argument. By default the Tomcat BeanFactory would try to use the automatically detected setter with the same argument type as the property type and then throw a NamingException, because it is not prepared to convert the given string attribute value to InetAddress. We can tell the Tomcat BeanFactory to use the other setter like that:

<Context ...>
  ...
  <Resource name="bean/MyBeanFactory" auth="Container"
            type="com.mycompany.MyBean2"
            factory="org.apache.naming.factory.BeanFactory"
            forceString="local"
            local="localhost"/>
  ...
</Context>

The bean property remote can also be set from a string, but one has to use the non-standard method name host. To set local and remote use the following configuration:

<Context ...>
  ...
  <Resource name="bean/MyBeanFactory" auth="Container"
            type="com.mycompany.MyBean2"
            factory="org.apache.naming.factory.BeanFactory"
            forceString="local,remote=host"
            local="localhost"
            remote="tomcat.apache.org"/>
  ...
</Context>

Multiple property descriptions can be combined in forceString by concatenation with comma as a separator. Each property description consists of either only the property name in which case the BeanFactory calls the setter method. Or it consist of name=method in which case the property named name is set by calling method method. For properties of types String or of primitive type or of their associated primitive wrapper classes using forceString is not needed. The correct setter will be automatically detected and argument conversion will be applied.

UserDatabase Resources
0. Introduction

UserDatabase resources are typically configured as global resources for use by a UserDatabase realm. Tomcat includes a UserDatabaseFactoory that creates UserDatabase resources backed by an XML file - usually tomcat-users.xml

The steps required to set up a global UserDatabase resource are described below.

1. Create/edit the XML file

The XML file is typically located at $CATALINA_BASE/conf/tomcat-users.xml however, you are free to locate the file anywhere on the file system. It is recommended that the XML files are placed in $CATALINA_BASE/conf. A typical XML would look like:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<tomcat-users>
  <role rolename="tomcat"/>
  <role rolename="role1"/>
  <user username="tomcat" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat"/>
  <user username="both" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat,role1"/>
  <user username="role1" password="tomcat" roles="role1"/>
</tomcat-users>
2. Declare Your Resource

Next, modify $CATALINA_BASE/conf/server.xml to create the UserDatabase resource based on your XML file. It should look something like this:

<Resource name="UserDatabase"
          auth="Container"
          type="org.apache.catalina.UserDatabase"
          description="User database that can be updated and saved"
          factory="org.apache.catalina.users.MemoryUserDatabaseFactory"
          pathname="conf/tomcat-users.xml"
          readonly="false" />

The pathname attribute can be absolute or relative. If relative, it is relative to $CATALINA_BASE.

The readonly attribute is optional and defaults to true if not supplied. If the XML is writeable then it will be written to when Tomcat starts. WARNING: When the file is written it will inherit the default file permissions for the user Tomcat is running as. Ensure that these are appropriate to maintain the security of your installation.

3. Configure the Realm

Configure a UserDatabase Realm to use this resource as described in the Realm configuration documentation.

JavaMail Sessions
0. Introduction

In many web applications, sending electronic mail messages is a required part of the system's functionality. The Java Mail API makes this process relatively straightforward, but requires many configuration details that the client application must be aware of (including the name of the SMTP host to be used for message sending).

Tomcat includes a standard resource factory that will create javax.mail.Session session instances for you, already configured to connect to an SMTP server. In this way, the application is totally insulated from changes in the email server configuration environment - it simply asks for, and receives, a preconfigured session whenever needed.

The steps required for this are outlined below.

1. Declare Your Resource Requirements

The first thing you should do is modify the web application deployment descriptor (/WEB-INF/web.xml) to declare the JNDI name under which you will look up preconfigured sessions. By convention, all such names should resolve to the mail subcontext (relative to the standard java:comp/env naming context that is the root of all provided resource factories. A typical web.xml entry might look like this:

<resource-ref>
  <description>
    Resource reference to a factory for javax.mail.Session
    instances that may be used for sending electronic mail
    messages, preconfigured to connect to the appropriate
    SMTP server.
  </description>
  <res-ref-name>
    mail/Session
  </res-ref-name>
  <res-type>
    javax.mail.Session
  </res-type>
  <res-auth>
    Container
  </res-auth>
</resource-ref>

WARNING - Be sure you respect the element ordering that is required by the DTD for web application deployment descriptors! See the Servlet Specification for details.

2. Code Your Application's Use Of This Resource

A typical use of this resource reference might look like this:

Context initCtx = new InitialContext();
Context envCtx = (Context) initCtx.lookup("java:comp/env");
Session session = (Session) envCtx.lookup("mail/Session");

Message message = new MimeMessage(session);
message.setFrom(new InternetAddress(request.getParameter("from")));
InternetAddress to[] = new InternetAddress[1];
to[0] = new InternetAddress(request.getParameter("to"));
message.setRecipients(Message.RecipientType.TO, to);
message.setSubject(request.getParameter("subject"));
message.setContent(request.getParameter("content"), "text/plain");
Transport.send(message);

Note that the application uses the same resource reference name that was declared in the web application deployment descriptor. This is matched up against the resource factory that is configured in the <Context> element for the web application as described below.

3. Configure Tomcat's Resource Factory

To configure Tomcat's resource factory, add an elements like this to the <Context> element for this web application.

<Context ...>
  ...
  <Resource name="mail/Session" auth="Container"
            type="javax.mail.Session"
            mail.smtp.host="localhost"/>
  ...
</Context>

Note that the resource name (here, mail/Session) must match the value specified in the web application deployment descriptor. Customize the value of the mail.smtp.host parameter to point at the server that provides SMTP service for your network.

Additional resource attributes and values will be converted to properties and values and passed to javax.mail.Session.getInstance(java.util.Properties) as part of the java.util.Properties collection. In addition to the properties defined in Annex A of the JavaMail specification, individual providers may also support additional properties.

If the resource is configured with a password attribute and either a mail.smtp.user or mail.user attribute then Tomcat's resource factory will configure and add a javax.mail.Authenticator to the mail session.

4. Install the JavaMail libraries

Download the JavaMail API.

Unpackage the distribution and place mail.jar into $CATALINA_HOME/lib so that it is available to Tomcat during the initialization of the mail Session Resource. Note: placing this jar in both $CATALINA_HOME/lib and a web application's lib folder will cause an error, so ensure you have it in the $CATALINA_HOME/lib location only.

5. Restart Tomcat

For the additional JAR to be visible to Tomcat, it is necessary for the Tomcat instance to be restarted.

Example Application

The /examples application included with Tomcat contains an example of utilizing this resource factory. It is accessed via the "JSP Examples" link. The source code for the servlet that actually sends the mail message is in /WEB-INF/classes/SendMailServlet.java.

WARNING - The default configuration assumes that there is an SMTP server listing on port 25 on localhost. If this is not the case, edit the <Context> element for this web application and modify the parameter value for the mail.smtp.host parameter to be the host name of an SMTP server on your network.

JDBC Data Sources
0. Introduction

Many web applications need to access a database via a JDBC driver, to support the functionality required by that application. The Java EE Platform Specification requires Java EE Application Servers to make available a DataSource implementation (that is, a connection pool for JDBC connections) for this purpose. Tomcat offers exactly the same support, so that database-based applications you develop on Tomcat using this service will run unchanged on any Java EE server.

For information about JDBC, you should consult the following:

NOTE - The default data source support in Tomcat is based on the DBCP connection pool from the Commons project. However, it is possible to use any other connection pool that implements javax.sql.DataSource, by writing your own custom resource factory, as described below.

1. Install Your JDBC Driver

Use of the JDBC Data Sources JNDI Resource Factory requires that you make an appropriate JDBC driver available to both Tomcat internal classes and to your web application. This is most easily accomplished by installing the driver's JAR file(s) into the $CATALINA_HOME/lib directory, which makes the driver available both to the resource factory and to your application.

2. Declare Your Resource Requirements

Next, modify the web application deployment descriptor (/WEB-INF/web.xml) to declare the JNDI name under which you will look up preconfigured data source. By convention, all such names should resolve to the jdbc subcontext (relative to the standard java:comp/env naming context that is the root of all provided resource factories. A typical web.xml entry might look like this:

<resource-ref>
  <description>
    Resource reference to a factory for java.sql.Connection
    instances that may be used for talking to a particular
    database that is configured in the <Context>
    configurartion for the web application.
  </description>
  <res-ref-name>
    jdbc/EmployeeDB
  </res-ref-name>
  <res-type>
    javax.sql.DataSource
  </res-type>
  <res-auth>
    Container
  </res-auth>
</resource-ref>

WARNING - Be sure you respect the element ordering that is required by the DTD for web application deployment descriptors! See the Servlet Specification for details.

3. Code Your Application's Use Of This Resource

A typical use of this resource reference might look like this:

Context initCtx = new InitialContext();
Context envCtx = (Context) initCtx.lookup("java:comp/env");
DataSource ds = (DataSource)
  envCtx.lookup("jdbc/EmployeeDB");

Connection conn = ds.getConnection();
... use this connection to access the database ...
conn.close();

Note that the application uses the same resource reference name that was declared in the web application deployment descriptor. This is matched up against the resource factory that is configured in the <Context> element for the web application as described below.

4. Configure Tomcat's Resource Factory

To configure Tomcat's resource factory, add an element like this to the <Context> element for the web application.

<Context ...>
  ...
  <Resource name="jdbc/EmployeeDB"
            auth="Container"
            type="javax.sql.DataSource"
            username="dbusername"
            password="dbpassword"
            driverClassName="org.hsql.jdbcDriver"
            url="jdbc:HypersonicSQL:database"
            maxActive="8"
            maxIdle="4"/>
  ...
</Context>

Note that the resource name (here, jdbc/EmployeeDB) must match the value specified in the web application deployment descriptor.

This example assumes that you are using the HypersonicSQL database JDBC driver. Customize the driverClassName and driverName parameters to match your actual database's JDBC driver and connection URL.

The configuration properties for Tomcat's standard data source resource factory (org.apache.tomcat.dbcp.dbcp.BasicDataSourceFactory) are as follows:

  • driverClassName - Fully qualified Java class name of the JDBC driver to be used.
  • username - Database username to be passed to our JDBC driver.
  • password - Database password to be passed to our JDBC driver.
  • url - Connection URL to be passed to our JDBC driver. (For backwards compatibility, the property driverName is also recognized.)
  • initialSize - The initial number of connections that will be created in the pool during pool initialization. Default: 0
  • maxActive - The maximum number of connections that can be allocated from this pool at the same time. Default: 8
  • minIdle - The minimum number of connections that will sit idle in this pool at the same time. Default: 0
  • maxIdle - The maximum number of connections that can sit idle in this pool at the same time. Default: 8
  • maxWait - The maximum number of milliseconds that the pool will wait (when there are no available connections) for a connection to be returned before throwing an exception. Default: -1 (infinite)

Some additional properties handle connection validation:

  • validationQuery - SQL query that can be used by the pool to validate connections before they are returned to the application. If specified, this query MUST be an SQL SELECT statement that returns at least one row.
  • validationQueryTimeout - Timeout in seconds for the validation query to return. Default: -1 (infinite)
  • testOnBorrow - true or false: whether a connection should be validated using the validation query each time it is borrowed from the pool. Default: true
  • testOnReturn - true or false: whether a connection should be validated using the validation query each time it is returned to the pool. Default: false

The optional evictor thread is responsible for shrinking the pool by removing any conections which are idle for a long time. The evictor does not respect minIdle. Note that you do not need to activate the evictor thread if you only want the pool to shrink according to the configured maxIdle property.

The evictor is disabled by default and can be configured using the following properties:

  • timeBetweenEvictionRunsMillis - The number of milliseconds between consecutive runs of the evictor. Default: -1 (disabled)
  • numTestsPerEvictionRun - The number of connections that will be checked for idleness by the evitor during each run of the evictor. Default: 3
  • minEvictableIdleTimeMillis - The idle time in milliseconds after which a connection can be removed from the pool by the evictor. Default: 30*60*1000 (30 minutes)
  • testWhileIdle - true or false: whether a connection should be validated by the evictor thread using the validation query while sitting idle in the pool. Default: false

Another optional feature is the removal of abandoned connections. A connection is called abandoned if the application does not return it to the pool for a long time. The pool can close such connections automatically and remove them from the pool. This is a workaround for applications leaking connections.

The abandoning feature is disabled by default and can be configured using the following properties:

  • removeAbandoned - true or false: whether to remove abandoned connections from the pool. Default: false
  • removeAbandonedTimeout - The number of seconds after which a borrowed connection is assumed to be abandoned. Default: 300
  • logAbandoned - true or false: whether to log stack traces for application code which abandoned a statement or connection. This adds serious overhead. Default: false

Finally there are various properties that allow further fine tuning of the pool behaviour:

  • defaultAutoCommit - true or false: default auto-commit state of the connections created by this pool. Default: true
  • defaultReadOnly - true or false: default read-only state of the connections created by this pool. Default: false
  • defaultTransactionIsolation - This sets the default transaction isolation level. Can be one of NONE, READ_COMMITTED, READ_UNCOMMITTED, REPEATABLE_READ, SERIALIZABLE. Default: no default set
  • poolPreparedStatements - true or false: whether to pool PreparedStatements and CallableStatements. Default: false
  • maxOpenPreparedStatements - The maximum number of open statements that can be allocated from the statement pool at the same time. Default: -1 (unlimited)
  • defaultCatalog - The name of the default catalog. Default: not set
  • connectionInitSqls - A list of SQL statements run once after a Connection is created. Separate multiple statements by semicolons (;). Default: no statement
  • connectionProperties - A list of driver specific properties passed to the driver for creating connections. Each property is given as name=value, multiple properties are separated by semicolons (;). Default: no properties
  • accessToUnderlyingConnectionAllowed - true or false: whether accessing the underlying connections is allowed. Default: false

For more details, please refer to the commons-dbcp documentation.

Adding Custom Resource Factories

If none of the standard resource factories meet your needs, you can write your own factory and integrate it into Tomcat, and then configure the use of this factory in the <Context> element for the web application. In the example below, we will create a factory that only knows how to create com.mycompany.MyBean beans from the Generic JavaBean Resources example above.

1. Write A Resource Factory Class

You must write a class that implements the JNDI service provider javax.naming.spi.ObjectFactory inteface. Every time your web application calls lookup() on a context entry that is bound to this factory (assuming that the factory is configured with singleton="false"), the getObjectInstance() method is called, with the following arguments:

  • Object obj - The (possibly null) object containing location or reference information that can be used in creating an object. For Tomcat, this will always be an object of type javax.naming.Reference, which contains the class name of this factory class, as well as the configuration properties (from the <Context> for the web application) to use in creating objects to be returned.
  • Name name - The name to which this factory is bound relative to nameCtx, or null if no name is specified.
  • Context nameCtx - The context relative to which the name parameter is specified, or null if name is relative to the default initial context.
  • Hashtable environment - The (possibly null) environment that is used in creating this object. This is generally ignored in Tomcat object factories.

To create a resource factory that knows how to produce MyBean instances, you might create a class like this:

package com.mycompany;

import java.util.Enumeration;
import java.util.Hashtable;
import javax.naming.Context;
import javax.naming.Name;
import javax.naming.NamingException;
import javax.naming.RefAddr;
import javax.naming.Reference;
import javax.naming.spi.ObjectFactory;

public class MyBeanFactory implements ObjectFactory {

  public Object getObjectInstance(Object obj,
      Name name, Context nameCtx, Hashtable environment)
      throws NamingException {

      // Acquire an instance of our specified bean class
      MyBean bean = new MyBean();

      // Customize the bean properties from our attributes
      Reference ref = (Reference) obj;
      Enumeration addrs = ref.getAll();
      while (addrs.hasMoreElements()) {
          RefAddr addr = (RefAddr) addrs.nextElement();
          String name = addr.getType();
          String value = (String) addr.getContent();
          if (name.equals("foo")) {
              bean.setFoo(value);
          } else if (name.equals("bar")) {
              try {
                  bean.setBar(Integer.parseInt(value));
              } catch (NumberFormatException e) {
                  throw new NamingException("Invalid 'bar' value " + value);
              }
          }
      }

      // Return the customized instance
      return (bean);

  }

}

In this example, we are unconditionally creating a new instance of the com.mycompany.MyBean class, and populating its properties based on the parameters included in the <ResourceParams> element that configures this factory (see below). You should note that any parameter named factory should be skipped - that parameter is used to specify the name of the factory class itself (in this case, com.mycompany.MyBeanFactory) rather than a property of the bean being configured.

For more information about ObjectFactory, see the JNDI Service Provider Interface (SPI) Specification.

You will need to compile this class against a class path that includes all of the JAR files in the $CATALINA_HOME/lib directory. When you are through, place the factory class (and the corresponding bean class) unpacked under $CATALINA_HOME/lib, or in a JAR file inside $CATALINA_HOME/lib. In this way, the required class files are visible to both Catalina internal resources and your web application.

2. Declare Your Resource Requirements

Next, modify your web application deployment descriptor (/WEB-INF/web.xml) to declare the JNDI name under which you will request new instances of this bean. The simplest approach is to use a <resource-env-ref> element, like this:

<resource-env-ref>
  <description>
    Object factory for MyBean instances.
  </description>
  <resource-env-ref-name>
    bean/MyBeanFactory
  </resource-env-ref-name>
  <resource-env-ref-type>
    com.mycompany.MyBean
  </resource-env-ref-type>
<resource-env-ref>

WARNING - Be sure you respect the element ordering that is required by the DTD for web application deployment descriptors! See the Servlet Specification for details.

3. Code Your Application's Use Of This Resource

A typical use of this resource environment reference might look like this:

Context initCtx = new InitialContext();
Context envCtx = (Context) initCtx.lookup("java:comp/env");
MyBean bean = (MyBean) envCtx.lookup("bean/MyBeanFactory");

writer.println("foo = " + bean.getFoo() + ", bar = " +
               bean.getBar());

4. Configure Tomcat's Resource Factory

To configure Tomcat's resource factory, add an elements like this to the <Context> element for this web application.

<Context ...>
  ...
  <Resource name="bean/MyBeanFactory" auth="Container"
            type="com.mycompany.MyBean"
            factory="com.mycompany.MyBeanFactory"
            singleton="false"
            bar="23"/>
  ...
</Context>

Note that the resource name (here, bean/MyBeanFactory must match the value specified in the web application deployment descriptor. We are also initializing the value of the bar property, which will cause setBar(23) to be called before the new bean is returned. Because we are not initializing the foo property (although we could have), the bean will contain whatever default value is set up by its constructor.

You will also note that, from the application developer's perspective, the declaration of the resource environment reference, and the programming used to request new instances, is identical to the approach used for the Generic JavaBean Resources example. This illustrates one of the advantages of using JNDI resources to encapsulate functionality - you can change the underlying implementation without necessarily having to modify applications using the resources, as long as you maintain compatible APIs.

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